Introduction

Over the last 12 months, India has experienced fluctuating fortunes on its borders. The summer of 2020 saw the India-China border, the Line of Actual Control (LAC), heat up, with the loss of 20 Indian soldiers and around 40 Chinese soldiers in the Galwan Valley clash in Eastern Ladakh[a]—the most serious military conflict on the world’s longest disputed boundary since 1975. Along India’s border with Pakistan, the Line of Control (LoC), meanwhile, the highest ever ceasefire violations took place last year. Eventually, however, the prospects for a two-front war abated. In February 2021, India and China announced an agreement for disengagement in a “phased, coordinated and verified manner.”[1] Within the same month, India and Pakistan issued a statement agreeing to observe the 2003 ceasefire agreement.[2] Yet India must remain agile so that it can respond in the event of break in the current lull.

To be sure,…

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