- The European Green Deal will have profound geopolitical repercussions, some of which are likely to have an adverse impact on the European Union’s partners.
- The EU should prepare to manage these repercussions in its relationships with important countries in its neighbourhood such as Russia and Algeria, and with global players such as the United States, China, and Saudi Arabia.
- The bloc should engage with oil- and gas-exporting countries to foster their economic diversification, including into renewable energy and green hydrogen that could be exported to Europe.
- The EU should improve the supply security of critical raw materials and limit its dependence on other countries – primarily on China – for these materials.
- It should work with the US and other partners to establish a ‘climate club’ whose members would apply similar carbon border adjustment measures.
- The EU should become a global standard-setter for the…