By some accounts, espionage has existed since 500 B.C. Chefs in charge of cooking feasts in the ancient Mediterranean city of Sybaris (in modern day southern Italy) protested against competitors copying their prized recipes. City leaders then afforded these chefs exclusive rights to their recipes for a year, recording one of the earliest examples of intellectual property rights protection.
At around the same time, Sun Tzu wrote his seminal treatise “The Art of War” in China. Among its 13 chapters, an entire (and indeed, the final) chapter was devoted to spy-craft and intelligence collection.
The conduct of such clandestine operations has existed since ancient times. What has changed since those days is the evolution of technology, but the core concept of espionage has persisted until today: both states and enterprises have secrets that others want to get their hands on.
In today’s digital environment, our data and…