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Real Estate
PF severely slashes project launches from 12 to 3

SET-listed developer Property Perfect Plc (PF) is slashing new residential project launches this year to three, down from a planned 12 projects, to save expenses amid a market slowdown. Managing director Wongsakorn Prasitvipat said the company will launch one project per quarter, starting this quarter, until the end of the year. All are single detached houses and duplex houses priced between 3-8 million baht. “Driven by pent-up demand, the market resumed in May with the same presales from the pre-virus period in January and February,” he said. Earlier the company expected April would be worse than March, but the market started its recovery that month. Without the Songkran holiday, homebuyers visited project sites for single houses and townhouses more frequently, said Mr Wongsakorn. In April, low-rise housing presales rose to 80% of the pre-virus level. Presales in May grew to 130% of January, making presales in the first five months on par with its target, he said. “Despite a recovery in May, we will monitor the market in June and July to see whether it will return to normal because sales in May might be from pent-up demand,” said Mr Wongsakorn. He said the decrease in new projects being launched

Real Estate
25 Million Applications: The Scramble for N.Y.C. Affordable Housing

For more than five years, William Sencion did the same task over and over. He signed onto the New York City’s housing lottery site and applied for one of the city’s highly coveted, below-market apartments. Each time, he got the same response: silence.That was until late last year, when he was told that he might qualify for a one-bedroom unit in the Bronx. But first he had to prove his eligibility by printing a month’s worth of financial, banking and tax documents, along with a letter from his employer, and providing them in person to a marketing agent for the apartment.He finally moved into the Bronx apartment last month, nearly six years after he first filed an application with the city’s affordable-housing system. His new one-bedroom home costs $1,554 a month, about $700 less than a comparable market-rate unit, he said.For many New Yorkers, the most desirable jackpot is not the New York Lotto, but to be selected in the city’s extraordinarily competitive affordable-housing lottery. Tens of thousands of people, and sometimes many more, vie for the handful of units available at a time. Since 2013, there have been more than 25 million applications submitted for roughly 40,000 units.As New York City enters a third month of economic turmoil and unprecedented job losses because of the coronavirus outbreak, the city on Tuesday will roll out an overhauled and much more modern method to apply for affordable housing.The online system, known as NYC Housing Connect, had been derided as antiquated and rife with technical problems that posed significant impediments to getting affordable housing even as the city has grown more expensive.“There’s a lot of waiting and waiting and not knowing if you are going to get it,” Mr. Sencion, 35, said.The new system is designed to streamline the application process, fix the frequent glitches and speed up the time it takes to move people into below-market apartments.“This pandemic not only caused a health crisis — it has caused an economic one as well. As stress is mounting on families across the city, we are fighting to ensure all New Yorkers are supported,” Mayor Bill de Blasio said. “The new and improved NYC Housing Connect will make applying for affordable housing easier than ever at a time that we know families need all the help they can get.”Applicants must wait years, often through personal financial hardship, for a shot at an affordable apartment, which can be hundreds and sometimes thousands of dollars less than a market-rate unit. The process is tiresome and complex.New York City’s first major overhaul of the housing lottery online will bring the system into the digital age, including the ability to apply on a smartphone. The current system, which went online in 2013, had become outdated and still required applicants to conduct some work in person, such as providing reams of financial statements. On the new site, those documents can be uploaded online.The housing lottery is the central clearinghouse for the vast majority of affordable-housing units in the city, including developments financed and subsidized by New York. The redesigned site will go online on Tuesday and the first units will appear in early July.There will be roughly 2,500 apartments offered on the site in the coming months, which will be available mostly for those with household incomes below or slightly above the median income. (The median income in New York City for a family of four is $113,700.)Mr. de Blasio has pledged to create and preserve at least 300,000 affordable homes by 2026, 200,000 of which the administration says it plans to achieve ahead of schedule in 2022.About 164,000 affordable homes have been created or preserved since 2014. Over the past year, more than 8,700 units have been advertised in the online lottery system, the most in any fiscal year, the city said.Still, housing advocates say many more low-cost homes are needed as the cost of living in New York has become increasingly prohibitive for working and middle-class residents.And the mayor’s plan was created long before the current economic turmoil, which has cost more than a million residents of New York City to lose their jobs, creating a looming housing crisis for those who have been unable to pay rent and could face eviction in the coming months.An eviction moratorium imposed by the state for those affected by the pandemic and economic shutdown expires in August.While the lottery website’s user interface will have an entirely new design, the most significant changes are under the hood. After applicants create profiles stating their household size and household income, which together determine a person’s eligibility, they will be shown apartments that they are most likely to qualify for.That is a significant change from the old system, in which applicants typically applied to every building on the lottery site without knowing if they were even eligible. That process led some units to receive more than 100,000 applicants, most of whom would never find out that they were ineligible from the beginning.There were other major problems too, like the site randomly crashing and freezing. City officials said the entire lottery system has been upgraded to improve its usability and stability.“One of the biggest frustrations was people not hearing if you were accepted and not hearing if you were rejected,” said Luis Daniel Caridad, an assistant director at GOLES, an organization on the Lower East Side of Manhattan that helps people apply for affordable housing. “We’ve been told that it has been fundamentally changed, and we are hopeful.”For years, the housing lottery only included newly constructed units. When someone moved into one and then left, the vacated apartments did not return to the lottery. Buildings kept their own waiting lists, leading to allegations to those with political connections or who paid bribes could cut in line.Some of those vacant units will now be entered in the lottery, allowing everyone to be made aware when they become available. Councilman Ben Kallos, who wrote the legislation that requires past rentals to return to the lottery, said the change would eventually bring thousands of units back into the lottery every month.“Before this, you had waiting lists and you had folks who might be politically connected with an official who knew buildings that had affordable housing,” said Mr. Kallos, a Democrat who represents the Upper East Side of Manhattan. “This means that all the vacant units in the system will be re-rented quickly.”Mr. Caridad said that the revamped lottery would still not address the most glaring shortfall in the city: the lack of affordable housing.“Having the actual affordable housing that hundreds of thousand of people need is really where the city needs to move toward,” he said. “The broader problem has not been fixed.”

Real Estate
$3.2 Million Homes in California

What You Get for $3.2 Million in California24 PhotosView Slide Show ›Paul RollinsNapa | $3.2 MillionA Carpenter Gothic house built in 1856, with four bedrooms and three and a half bathrooms, plus a one-bedroom, one-bathroom guesthouse, on a 0.2-acre lotBuilt as the home of Jonathan Horrell, a Napa County judge, and his wife, Sarah, this house was the first on its block. In 1890, it was moved to a new lot, now within walking distance of downtown Napa. In the late 1940s, the house was subdivided into apartments. The current owner, who bought it in 2015, turned it back into a single-family house and did an extensive renovation to restore its original splendor, using documents from the Napa Historical Society and raw materials sourced from the house.Size: 3,830 square feetPrice per square foot: $836Indoors: The exterior has many elements of Carpenter Gothic style, popular in the United States in the mid-19th century: a steep, gabled roof, decorative bargeboard and a symmetrical facade anchored by a central pediment.A walkway made of bricks repurposed from the home’s foundation leads to the stoop. Behind the front door — believed to be original — is a long hallway and a curved wooden staircase, with a half bathroom tucked underneath.On either side of the entry hall are formal entertaining spaces: to the left, a sitting room, and to the right, a dining room. Like the rest of the house, these rooms have period light fixtures added by the owner and refinished fir floors. Several paces beyond the sitting room is a study with wood panels and a redwood ceiling, both salvaged from other parts of the house.At the far end of the hall is a family room with a wood-frame fireplace. It flows into a contemporary kitchen with marble counters and stainless steel Thermador appliances. On the far right side of the kitchen is a butler’s pantry with one of the home’s original leaded-glass windows.On the second level are three bedrooms. At the top of the landing is a guest room large enough to hold a full-size bed and a bathroom with a wooden vanity and walk-in shower.A hallway extends from the landing to a set of French doors that opens to a street-facing balcony. To the right is another guest room; to the left is the master bedroom with an en suite bathroom that has black-and-white-tile floors.The third floor is now configured as a large bedroom suite with a bathroom that has a claw-foot tub, set under a window with views of the back of the property.Outdoor space: Off the family room is a wooden deck with space for an outdoor dining table. The backyard is lined with stones salvaged from the original foundation, and a brick pathway connects the main house to a Craftsman-style guest cottage added in 1907, with a kitchen and full bathroom. To the left of the guest cottage is a carriage house with an attached barn, used by the owner to display artifacts recovered during the renovation and materials related to the home’s early owners.Taxes: $42,561 (estimated, although the home is eligible for reduced property taxes based on the Mills Act, which provides economic incentives to homeowners for the preservation of historic properties)Contact: Agi Vermes Smith, Engel & Völkers, 707-363-9896; the horrellhouse.comImageCredit…Lance GerberPalm Springs | $3.2 MillionA 1948 house with three bedrooms and two and a half bathrooms, plus a two-bedroom, one-bathroom guesthouse on a 0.5-acre lotThe homes and apartment buildings of Herbert W. Burns, a self-taught architectural designer, marry the sleek lines of midcentury modernism with the soft colors and organic materials of the desert. This house, clad in Arizona sandstone, was partially demolished before being bought and restored by Thomboy Properties in 2019.It is in the Little Tuscany section of Palm Springs, near a number of historic properties, including Richard Neutra’s Kaufmann House and homes by Albert Frey and E. Stewart Williams. Palm Canyon Drive, a thoroughfare with many bars and restaurants, is a five-minute drive.Size: 4,700 square feetPrice per square foot: $681Indoors: A block wall separates the front courtyard and the swimming pool from the street, and a concrete walkway leads to the teal front door.To the left of the entry is an open-plan living area with terrazzo floors and sliding-glass doors. To the right is a wall of exposed brick with an inset fireplace.A floor-to-ceiling planter divides the living area from a dining alcove with a built-in teak bar and an open kitchen with an island and new appliances finished in teak. Beyond the kitchen are a butler’s pantry and a guest suite with a pool-facing bedroom and a bathroom with a large walk-in shower. Also on this side of the house is a laundry room that connects to the rear garage.A hallway — partially lined in glass brick, with a small row of planted succulents — extends from the entryway to the left wing of the house. On the near end is a guest bedroom with a textured accent wall and an en suite bathroom with a teak vanity and a glass-walled shower. At the far end of the hall is the master suite, which has sliding-glass doors that open to the pool area; the bathroom has a double vanity and a soaking tub brightened by a hanging starburst light fixture.Outdoor space: To the right of the main house, forming a courtyard around the pool, is a two-bedroom guesthouse with terrazzo floors. This space has its own sitting area, a kitchen with custom navy cabinets and gold hardware, and a bathroom with a glass-walled shower.Overhangs from the two structures offer shaded space around the pool; an outdoor kitchen is built into the left side of the courtyard. A lawn runs between the pool and the street-facing wall, but the rest of the landscaping features rocks and native desert plants. There is a concrete patio behind the house.Taxes: $40,959 (estimated)Contact: Keith Markovitz, TTK Represents, Compass, 760-904-5234; ttkrepresents.comImageCredit…Ron Bird/Ron Bird PhotographyCarmel-by-the-Sea | $3.195 MillionA cottage built in 1953, with two bedrooms and one and a half bathrooms, plus a one-bedroom, one-bathroom guesthouse, on a 0.1-acre lotA city on the Monterey Peninsula with a little more than 3,800 residents, Carmel-by-the-Sea is known for storybook cottages that have names rather than street numbers. Many — like this one, called Primrose Cottage — are within walking distance of the beach and Ocean Avenue, the main drag.The city has long been considered an artists’ enclave, and in the early 20th century it was a popular getaway spot for writers like Jack London and Sinclair Lewis. It has a number of small theaters, including the Forest, one of the oldest outdoor theaters on the West Coast, which is a 10-minute walk from the house. San Francisco is about two hours away by car, and Monterey is a 15-minute drive.Size: 1,498 square feetPrice per square foot: $2,133Indoors: Past the wrought-iron gate in front is a brick pathway that winds through a yard with English-inspired landscaping, including low hedges and rose bushes.The arched front door, trimmed with iron strapping, opens to a living room with white-painted ceiling beams and a fireplace with a stone surround. Through an arched doorway at the back of the room is a hallway that leads to a half bathroom and a den with a bay of windows facing the guest cottage.To the right of the front door is the dining room, which, like the rest of the house, has refinished hardwood floors. Through another arched doorway is the kitchen, which can also be reached through the den. The kitchen has white-tiled counters with white-and-blue-tile trim. A window over the sink looks into the rear garden, and a glass-paned door opens to the patio.At the center of the house is a wooden staircase with a wrought-iron banister that leads to the second floor, which has two bedrooms on either end of a short hallway. The bedrooms are roughly equal in size, with room for queen-size beds, and both have street and rear-facing windows. A hallway bathroom has a combination tub and shower, a blue-tiled vanity with its original porcelain sink and gray-and-white floral wallpaper.The guest cottage is connected to the main house by a brick walkway. It has a Dutch door, an exposed-brick fireplace and a bathroom with a stall shower and white-and-silver wallpaper.Outdoor space: A brick patio in back of the main house has space for a table and chairs. The back garden, like the front yard, is planted with low hedges and rose bushes, and low stone walls create a path to a second small patio with a bench.Taxes: $34,826 (estimated)Contact: Tim Allen, Coldwell Banker Residential Brokerage, 831-214-1990; timallenproperties.comFor weekly email updates on residential real estate news, sign up here. Follow us on Twitter: @nytrealestate.

Real Estate
Shopping for String Lights

Outdoor string lights have surged in popularity, thanks to their ability to make a simple backyard or patio feel like a romantic outdoor cafe. And that makes them especially appealing during a summer of social distancing.“Everybody loves the way they look,” said Jesse Terzi, the principal of New Eco Landscapes, a Brooklyn-based design firm that frequently uses string lights to cast a warm glow over outdoor spaces. “It makes for a different environment. When you have those lights on, compared to a single-source light, it feels a little more festive.”It doesn’t hurt that most string lights are extremely affordable: Some barely cost more than a six-pack of craft beer. And if there’s an outdoor outlet available, installing them is a do-it-yourself project.“It’s less of a process than installing most other lights,” said Mr. Terzi, who often attaches hooks for string lights to exterior walls or trees, or to steel poles secured to a fence.That’s all it takes, he noted, to make it feel “like a party’s happening.”How do you choose the right style? “The bulb matters a lot,” Mr. Terzi said, as it is usually exposed. “It’s about how vintage or modern you want it” — and whether you prefer incandescent bulbs or energy-saving LEDs.Do string lights need a cable for support? Not necessarily, he said, but a steel cable or rope may give the setup a more polished, professional look.How will you control them? You can simply plug string lights in when you need them, but for more convenience, consider adding a smart plug or timer. “A lot of people have them on timers,” Mr. Terzi said, “so it comes on at dusk and goes off at midnight.”ImageBolleke Hanging LampRechargeable cordless outdoor lamp with silicone loop$119 at Fatboy: 972.304.6020 or shop.fatboyusa.comImageSolar Droplet Lantern Light StringSolar-charging string light with punched metal diffusers$40 at Terrain: 877-583-7724 or shopterrain.comImageBrightown G40 Outdoor Patio String LightString light in 25-foot length with incandescent bulbsAbout $18 on Amazon: amazon.comImageHampton Bay 24-Light Indoor-Outdoor String LightCommercial-style 48-foot LED string lightAbout $50 at Home Depot: 800-466-3337 or homedepot.comImageSimple String LightsLight string with 10 bulbs and brass, bronze or nickel sockets$49 at West Elm: 888-922-4119 or westelm.comFor weekly email updates on residential real estate news, sign up here. Follow us on Twitter: @nytrealestate.

Real Estate
Pandemic Shopping for Your Neighbors

About two weeks ago, I found packets of yeast for sale at a corner market, displayed on a shelf like it was no big deal, like yeast hadn’t become a precious commodity during the coronavirus pandemic as supermarket shelves emptied and Americans took up bread-baking like a national pastime.I don’t even bake bread. But my neighbor Aggie Zelazco does, and I knew she had been looking for yeast for weeks. I grabbed a few packets.Half an hour later, standing six feet from her door, I gushed from behind my mask as she clutched the little yellow packets, turning them over in her hands. “I can’t believe you found it,” she said. I’d never been so excited about a $1.69 gift.I’ve known Ms. Zelazko for seven years. Our sons play together, and we share tips about parenting, yard work and home repairs. And because she has metastatic breast cancer, I’ve been picking up food for her whenever I go shopping, taking her handwritten lists with me to the markets. Until March, when stay-at-home orders were enacted, I had no idea she baked, or that she liked cinnamon rolls, or whipped salted butter.But the pandemic has deeply affected how Americans shop, eat and stock our pantries. In turn, we’ve caught glimpses of the private lives of our friends and neighbors. In the early days of the pandemic, while Americans scrambled for the most basic items, like flour and toilet paper, people had little choice but to ask one another to help fill in the gaps in their shopping lists. If you were lucky enough to score an Instacart time slot, you texted your best friend to find out if she still needed garlic or sugar. If you braved an hourlong line at ShopRite, you picked up an extra package of chicken for your neighbor.Now, even as the grocery store shelves begin to resemble normal again, the dynamics still linger, and our shopping habits are still altered. Some food and household items remain in short supply (good luck finding bread flour), many stores still have lines, and for people like Ms. Zelazko who are immunocompromised, shopping is still off-limits.“There still is sharing of those special items. For example flour — I bake bread every week and I’ve borrowed flour from several different friends and lent it to other friends,” said Michael Pollan, author of “The Omnivore’s Dilemma,” whose June essay in the New York Review of Books laid out how the pandemic exposed dysfunction in the American food supply chain. “There has been that kind of communication, which I imagine was going on in the Soviet bloc quite a bit once upon a time when there was no certainty that you could find the item that you needed, and the sense of really scoring when you found something.”Americans are still wary of shopping. Roughly a third of respondents to a survey conducted in mid-May by Acosta, a sales and marketing agency, reported that they were concerned about food shortages, were stocking up when they did shop to limit trips to the store, and were cooking more at home. C.S.A. memberships are up as people look for alternatives for getting fruits, vegetables, eggs, cheese and meat. And victory gardens are making a comeback, leading to plant swaps among people who may never have gardened before but now have more pepper plants than they have containers to grow them in.A few weeks after California enacted stay-at-home orders, Ave Lambert, who lives in San Francisco, was in need of a can opener and a bicycle pump, but didn’t want to venture to a store. So, Mx. Lambert, who identifies as nonbinary, set up a private Facebook group, calling it Barter Babes, and invited local friends to join. Members could invite friends, too, but they had to personally know the invitees. The group is local and small, with around 100 members.“People were looking for yeast and flour, all these things that I had,” said Mx. Lambert, who, at one point traded olive oil for salmon and halibut. Members set up trades at a social distance, leaving packages of goods on one another’s stoops and doorsteps. The swap filled in a gap in food and supplies, but it also gave members an excuse to see each other, even if the visits were fleeting and from a distance. Getting some eggs would give you a reason to text your friend with a picture of the frittata you’d made with them.By the middle of spring, members were trading young tomato plants, too. Mx. Lambert, 36, who works in food education, hopes that by the time the tomatoes ripen, social distancing rules will be relaxed enough for the group to arrange an in-person meetup to sample the harvest. The little tomato plants are “a promise that I will see you this summer and we will see each other later,” Mx. Lambert said.Eating is a social activity — who wants to break bread alone? Now, even as the country reopens, sharing a meal remains one of the biggest hurdles, with restaurants considering fixes like plexiglass to separate tables, and experts recommending that guests bring their own food and utensils to dinner parties. No wonder some of us get excited when we find yeast for a friend at the grocery store — if you can’t share the bread, at least you can share the ingredients.“We’re rediscovering something really important about food which is, it’s a deeply social act,” said the British food writer Bee Wilson, author of “The Way We Eat Now.” “You feel wonderful when you’ve given someone something. It’s so basic and frugal and it’s the opposite of the Uber Eats delivery culture.”There’s another discovery that happens when a friend hands you her shopping list. You get to peek inside her pantry and see a side of the person that you might not otherwise have known — not just what they buy, but how they shop and what they consider staples.“It’s sort of like finding out how somebody washes their underwear,” Ms. Wilson said. “It’s peering into somebody’s life in a quite intimate way that we never would have done in the past.”What we find there just might surprise us.For weekly email updates on residential real estate news, sign up here. Follow us on Twitter: @nytrealestate.

Real Estate
Let’s Meet on the Porch

While walking my dog on a recent Sunday afternoon, I spotted my neighbor knitting on her front porch. I waved and approached, stopping just short of her shade garden. We chatted for a long time — from a safe distance — about working from home, our dogs, baking, knitting and how our families are doing, not just small talk these days.The porch has become the buffer in my neighborhood to negotiate new social-distancing rituals, an old-fashioned way to socialize that has been rekindled by the coronavirus.In these strange times, I have engaged more regularly with our neighbors and passers-by than I have in years, often from the safe vantage point of a corner rocking chair on my own front porch. Our family has met new puppies and babies, chatted with good friends and even learned the names of neighbors we knew only by sight. Strangers have stopped to admire our magnolias.We deemed a front porch a prerequisite when shopping for houses in upstate New York more than 20 years ago. We luckily landed here in Delmar, in the middle of a block filled with old homes with inviting porches. Ours has held parties, happy hours, meals and solitary moments over the years. But I never thought it would take on the roles of both a barrier and a connection during a pandemic.The porch, an architectural element that fell victim to air-conditioning in the mid-20th century, used to be the place where people gathered and cooled off. Old fliers for houses like mine advertised the porch as “a summer parlor” and “a pleasant shelter.”Now we’re becoming champion porch sitters, after being cooped up for two dreary months of working and binge-watching, in the company of only our immediate family. Warm weather has sprung us loose, but only so far.Beaches and parks don’t beckon when you have the luxury — and we are fortunate — of a porch for socialization and relaxing. My oldest daughter, Zoe, up from Brooklyn since March, has had many of her meals on the porch, and has found it a good place to read, write and draw. She is an artist and a gallery partnerships manager at the online art-collection platform Artsy, and she left the city to shelter in place and work from here, her childhood home.While many of us have decks as well, the privacy of the back of the house is not what I crave right now. Even just seeing other people from afar has given us a boost. We want to see our friends and neighbors. We miss them.And this isn’t limited to my block. Across the country, there are accounts of people using porches to engage from a distance for happy hours and concerts, to help combat social isolation.Another couple at the end of the street have been sitting on the porch of their bungalow while their teens and friends space themselves six feet apart on the front lawn. A month ago, around the corner, I heard a tiny “hi” from an enclosed porch — only to see a miniature Darth Vader looking out, barely reaching the window. It was May the Fourth.Our porch runs the width of our house, about 25 feet. We have found there’s ample space for social distancing, so we designated a chair to be sanitized before and after each guest. My husband and I realized this while a repairman finalized the sale of a boiler from 20 feet away. The next guest, Christine, a friend, brought over an extra pulse oximeter (I have asthma) and sad news about a 95-year-old World War II veteran in town who was dying. We toasted him with glasses of wine.I didn’t know how starved I had become for connection until I took my spot on the porch and enthusiastic waves from passers-by — and from me in return — ensued. I’ve had limited outings since March, my only excursions being hikes, neighborhood walks and doctors’ appointments — mostly solo.The first time we recognized the porch as a social vehicle to get through this time came in mid-March, after my 16-year-old daughter, Nia, returned from a trip to Spain and had to be quarantined for 14 days. Nia sat inside while her friend Lily sat on the porch, a closed window between them, and they spoke on their phones.From the porch, I have watched a convoy of cars and minivans cruise along the street, honking at a retiring elementary schoolteacher who came down off her porch to tell her students how much she loved them.I congratulated my neighbor Ed on turning 79 earlier this spring. His family held a party in his honor on his front lawn, while he sat on the porch with his wife, Shirley.On Memorial Day, we usually hold a brunch during the local parade that streams past our house. It’s the time when we typically spruce up the porch for our guests. Even though the parade was postponed, I’ve put in fresh geraniums in the cement urns at the base of the stairs.There is always more work to be done, because upstate winters aren’t kind to wooden porches, and they need constant upkeep. We replaced ours in 2004, finding a white tulip blooming underneath, transplanted by a squirrel, no doubt.So during this long summer, I’ll be burning off my nervous energy with sandpaper and paint brushes, pausing for random and treasured conversations with my neighbors.For weekly email updates on residential real estate news, sign up here. Follow us on Twitter: @nytrealestate.

Real Estate
The ‘Invisible’ Garden of Scent

In his latest book, Ken Druse candidly admits to a particular botanical bias. “When I come across a beautiful flower,” he writes, “the first thing I do (after checking for a bumblebee) is lean in to sample its smell.”And if there’s no scent? “I find the blossom somewhat lacking.”Mr. Druse is the author of 20 garden books including, most recently, “The Scentual Garden: Exploring the World of Botanical Fragrance,” which was awarded the American Horticultural Society’s top honor in March. He challenges those with gardens large and small — or even just a collection of houseplants or herbs in pots — to do a fragrance inventory and then punch up the scent quotient in strategic spots, taking into account multiple seasons and various times of day.Scent is what Mr. Druse calls “the invisible garden,” a design layer often overlooked while we’re distracted by shopping for something in a particular color, or searching out a plant with a particular shape, scale or purpose. But factoring in fragrance delivers another sensory dimension.ImageThe species Hosta plantaginea, which has white flowers and great fragrance, has been used to breed many scented offspring, including the variety Stained Glass.Credit…Ken Druse[embedded content]No two noses are exactly alike, so the scents that you favor, from floral-sweet to herbal, fruity or spicy, are highly personal — and open to extremes of interpretation that Mr. Druse calls “the nose of the beholder.”He has a bit of a party trick for visitors to his northwestern New Jersey garden: He asks them to describe a particular plant’s scent. With a minority of fragrant things, there is no dispute. Lemon verbena, chocolate cosmos and pineapple sage all resemble their well-chosen common names. But Calycanthus floridus, a shrub he loves that is native from Virginia to Florida, but hardy much farther north?ImageRoses are probably the most familiar fragrant flower, and the old roses like gallica, centifolia and Damask types are among the richest-scented.Credit…Ellen Hoverkamp, for “The Scentual Garden”  “What do you think it smells like?” he asks visitors to his garden between late May and mid-to-late June, as they sample the dark red blooms near his Carolina sweetshrub. Guests have offered a wide range of answers — bubble gum, strawberries, paint thinner. (Mr. Druse thinks it’s more like the inside of a whiskey barrel.) A green-flowered variety called Athens smells like Granny Smith apples or cantaloupe, depending on the age of the blossoms.Party tricks aside, he offered some guidance on creating a more fragrant garden, indoors and out.Focus on the Most-Traveled PathsAdd fragrance to places where you can sample it as you walk by — between your front door and driveway, for example. That should be obvious, but too often we forget.It doesn’t need to be flowers, either, Mr. Druse said, recalling a low-growing “hedge” of hardy, upright rosemary leaning over the edge of a brick path on a university campus on Long Island. “Imagine brushing up against the evergreen herb as you walk by, and filling the air with its bracing scent,” he said.Plan for a succession of smells. Don’t line the whole walk with lilacs, yielding a single scent-filled moment, but instead plant a staggered palette that mixes shrubs, down to perennials, bulbs and annuals.“I have dwarf late-winter viburnums with their clove-scented flowers in March and April,” Mr. Druse said. “Then fragrant peonies and bearded iris. Next come the roses. In summer, the rich aroma of regal lilies intensifies in the evening.”The lilies lean toward the light, he noted, so plant them on the darker side of the path. The same holds for daylilies (Hemerocallis), whose flared flowers Mr. Druse describes as having “a sweet and lightly fruity or citrus scent.”There can also be fragrance underfoot, with creeping thymes in a sunny, well-drained place.“I’ve grown Corsican mint, one of my favorite plants, with varying success,” said Mr. Druse of the half-inch-tall creeper he has managed to keep alive for a couple of years between the paving stones in moisture-retentive soil. “But I haven’t completely cracked the code. When it works and I step on it, the strong smell of peppermint drifts up to my nose.”ImageStrategically placed cottage pinks and carnations, all in the genus Dianthus, emit their clove-like fragrance alongside a seating area in Ken Druse’s New Jersey garden.Credit…Ken DruseUp the Scent Quotient Near Outdoor SeatingThe pathway advice holds true for plantings adjacent to patios, decks and other daytime seating areas: Extend the season. Many of the same plants work there. Other recommendations for sunny areas include spring-blooming mock orange (Philadelphus coronarius and Philadelphus x virginalis) and summer-blooming tall garden phlox (Phlox paniculata).In shade, he suggested, one possibility is Hosta plantaginea. All hostas were once called plantain lilies with that white-flowered species in mind, and hybrids descended from it are typically scented.Try Night-Scented PlantsIf you sit outside in the evening, night-scented plants offer a way to connect with the garden through a sense of smell after dark.Many of the most fragrant plants bloom at night, leading the early 20th-century garden writer Louise Beebe Wilder to call them “the vesper flowers.” They do it to attract night-flying pollinators like moths or even bats.Admittedly, some — including tender plants like night-blooming jasmine (Cestrum nocturnum), old-fashioned trailing white-and-purple petunias (the heirloom variety Old-Fashioned Climbing is a good choice) and angel’s trumpet (Brugmansia) — do it so overpoweringly well that they may not be good candidates for placement close to a dining area.“Capitalize instead on the gentler fragrances of moonflower, Nicotiana or evening primrose that would be perfect company on summer evenings, or just outside a screened porch,” Mr. Druse said.ImageScent is often open to personal interpretation. When Mr. Druse asks visitors to describe the smell of the dark red flowers of the native shrub Calycanthus floridus, or Carolina sweetshrub, answers have included bubblegum, strawberries and paint thinner.Credit…Ellen Hoverkamp, for “The Scentual Garden”  Open the WindowsBringing the outdoors inside is not just about creating views of the landscape, but letting in aromas, as well.To enjoy spring’s lilacs from an upstairs bedroom, Mr. Druse said, select a cultivar that has some height: “Not a dwarf Korean lilac, but one like Syringa President Lincoln, long and leggy like its namesake, or the later-blooming Japanese tree lilac.” The latter, Syringa reticulata, has frothy, cream-colored June flowers with a honey scent; the former are Wedgewood blue.Vines are another way to move fragrance upward, but they need trellises or stainless-steel cables to climb on.Mr. Druse grows Clematis Betty Corning, which blooms for weeks, with bell-shaped blossoms “that smell like lavender flowers and are the same color,” he said.Cold-hardy wisteria is also very fragrant, dominated by a honey aroma, “but as many gardeners know,” he said, “this plant is probably too powerfully aggressive for planting without a very sturdy trellis.”In places with gentle winters, Zones 7 and warmer, Mr. Druse said, “true jasmines and their impostors would be obvious candidates.” Possibilities include winter jasmine (Jasminum polyanthum), star jasmine (Trachelospermum jasminoides, in Zone 8) and Carolina Jessamine (Gelsemium sempervirens).Create a Patch of Touchable FragranceMany gardeners grow culinary herbs, some of which — the mints and rosemary, for instance — offer the extra delight of scent when brushed against. A group of pots positioned within reach, somewhere you pass many times a day, is an ideal way to incorporate such touch-me plants, even where there is no garden space.Mr. Druse makes room, front and center, for some herbal-scented plants aren’t intended for the kitchen — like patchouli, anise hyssop (Agastache) and bee balm (Monarda).The pelargoniums, or scented geraniums, were his gateway to fragrance. “Scented geraniums helped get me hooked on gardening as a teenager,” he said. As with many of his favorites, their leaves have to be rubbed to release the aromatic oils, which mimic sharp lemon, rose, peppermint, nutmeg and even coconut.Some Native Plants Offer the Bonus of ScentBesides being the best match for native pollinators and other beneficial insects, many native plants offer scent for the gardener to enjoy. A few Mr. Druse suggests considering: the scented foliage of mountain mint (Pycnanthemum); prairie dropseed grass (Sporobolus heterolepis), with late-summer and fall flowers that smell like popcorn or cilantro; and wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens), whose foliage and fruits bear the scent.The flowers of perennial black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) are honey-scented; milkweed’s are “thick and syrupy,” he said.Some of his favorite native shrubs include that Calycanthus of his guessing game; Virginia sweetspire (Itea virginica), which smells like honey; fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus), with a scent of honey and vanilla; various deciduous azaleas (Rhododendron species); and moisture-loving summersweet (Clethra alnifolia), like clove with vanilla.ImageMr. Druse, who grows Hoya kerrii as a houseplant, enjoys the heart-shaped leaves all year and the scented flowers in summer — a smell he describes as “very much like ketchup.”Credit…Ken DruseChoose Houseplants for Their ScentIn Mr. Druse’s New Jersey sunroom and throughout his house, a collection of tender houseplants emphasizes fragrance. Many of them migrate outdoors during the warmer months, where they sit in the gentle shade of a crab apple and dogwood.“That’s where my hoyas in hanging baskets and Arabian jasmine, Jasminum sambac, spend the summer,” he said. But his potted lemons and limes, which bloom from February to June, “want more sun, so they vacation on the sunny edge of the shadows.”Must-Have Fragrant PlantsMr. Druse’s list is long: More than a hundred options for various climates are included in “The Scentual Garden.”But if he was forced to pare down the list? “I couldn’t be without heliotrope, cottage pinks, licorice sweet flag, my beloved heirloom rose, lemon balm, tuberose and fruity cut freesias from the grocery,” he said.Then he remembered one special treasure: “Who knew I could grow tropical allspice — Pimenta dioica — with its leathery, evergreen leaves that smell, well, like allspice in the house over winter?”ImageA mix of iris color and fragrance possibilities, including the big, beige bearded flowers at the center with their grape scent. Credit…Ellen Hoverkamp, for “The Scentual Garden”  Fast Fragrance FactsFragrance in plants did not develop for our pleasure, of course, but as a form of defense against predation and to help attract pollinators, among other functions. The protective aspect is often packed into the foliar chemistry, telling an insect or animal that nibbles, “I’m not good to eat.” In the case of popular culinary herbs, like mints, oregano and rosemary, the same chemical compound that deters predators is what makes the plant taste good to us.Fragrance is often evocative, and no wonder: Because of the brain’s anatomy, smell, memory and emotion are closely linked.The best way to sample an aroma? Take short sniffs, not long, deep breaths. Then take an occasional break by smelling the crook of your elbow. “We’re accustomed to the scent of our own skin,” Mr. Druse said, “so it helps reset the nose to our baseline.”For weekly email updates on residential real estate news, sign up here. Follow us on Twitter: @nytrealestate.

Real Estate
How to Contain Your Children’s Clutter

Any home can feel claustrophobic during a pandemic. But those with young children may feel especially hemmed in, if their living space is covered with toys, games and school supplies.If that’s your reality, there is a way to hold back the deluge of clutter, or at least make cleanup easier at the end of the day — with a well-considered combination of cabinets, shelves and containers.Without a storage plan, you don’t stand much of a chance of maintaining a serene, ordered space.“Quite often, I go to people’s houses and they haven’t thought through where things are going,” whether it’s toys, sports equipment, art supplies or even children’s clothing, said Lisa Mettis, the founder of the family-focused interior design firm Born & Bred Studio, in London. “They don’t section things off, which leads to chaos.”For tips on controlling the clutter that inevitably comes with children, we asked interior designers for advice.ImageBorn & Bred Studio frequently uses shallow wall shelves to store and display books.Credit…Anna StathakiTake Stock of the SituationStart with an honest assessment of each child’s storage needs. Some children have more toys than others, some play team sports and some might be budding artists or bookworms.Then consider the approximate volume of goods each activity requires and try to designate a specific area for each cluster of goods, whether it’s a mountain of Legos or a bag of hockey equipment.“It’s about giving everything its place,” said Kevin Isbell, a Los Angeles designer. “You designate a space for everything, in the hopes that kids will actually follow through” with cleanup at the end of the day.“Usually, we think about it as three key areas: rest, study and play,” Ms. Mettis said.Books, for instance, could be placed in a quiet reading corner, while arts and crafts supplies could be organized around a desk or table and various toys stowed in designated drawers.ImageWhen designing any child’s room — even a nursery — “we usually approach it as, ‘How can they grow into this space?’” said the designer Jay Jeffers, who suggested choosing colors and furniture that a child won’t quickly outgrow.Credit…Matthew MillmanPlan for the FutureChildren’s interests evolve rapidly, so try to leave some flexibility in the storage plan.“We usually approach it as, ‘How can they grow into this space?’” said Jay Jeffers, a San Francisco-based interior designer.Specifically, Mr. Jeffers said, he cautions clients about designing children’s rooms that are too juvenile or cutesy. “New moms might be excited to do a whole nursery in pink for a baby girl,” he said. “But then they’re redoing it in four years,” as the child outgrows the style.Containers with simple designs and colors — rather than ones that resemble animals or are in pastel shades — more easily make the transition from plush toys to sports equipment when the time comes.Mr. Jeffers also tries to anticipate future needs. “We always want a desk” — specifically, a desk with drawers — he said, even for young children, as they will eventually need a study space.ImageA room by Studio DB includes numerous storage drawers in a custom-made bed.Credit…Matthew WilliamsCreate More Storage With FurnitureBig closets are wonderful for containing clutter, but even without them, some pieces of furniture can help. When renovating homes, many designers try to shoehorn as much storage space into built-in furniture as possible, with integrated drawers and cubbies beneath beds, benches and window seats.The New York-based design firm Studio DB, for instance, frequently creates custom beds for children’s rooms with big drawers below the mattress and cubbies at the head of the bed.For a young family in Brooklyn, Studio DB also designed a living room with a toy-concealing window seat, a coffee table with hidden storage under a swiveling top and a long cabinet along one wall. “That cabinet is a good mix of adult and kid storage. It’s a bar as well as toy storage,” said Damian Zunino, a principal of the firm.The result is a room where children can play (and parents can drink) — and a place that can be cleaned up in a hurry when it’s time for a videoconference.Purchased furniture pieces can offer just as much storage as custom designs. Furniture brands like Pottery Barn Kids, Lulu and Georgia, and Ikea offer platform or captain’s beds with integrated drawers, storage benches with flip-up tops or cubbies, and free-standing cupboards.And there’s no rule that says credenzas and chests of drawers can hold only glassware and clothing — they can just as easily be used to store dolls and action figures.ImageRegan Baker Design converted a wine room into an arts-and-crafts space where an Ikea storage system holds supplies on one wall and clips on wires hold art on another.Credit…Suzanna Scott.jpgAdd Bins and BasketsDon’t rely on drawers, cubbies and shelves alone to contain the clutter — adding bins or baskets will make them far more useful. Containers can keep various types of toys separated, while making it easier for children to find their things and put them away later.“We use baskets all the time. They’re great because you can move them around, they look good, they’re sturdy, and they don’t need to be organized like an open shelf does,” said Shannon Wollack, a partner at the West Hollywood-based interior design firm Studio Life/Style. “They still look clean and organized, but when you’re cleaning up with kids, you can just throw stuff in really quickly and move on.”Mr. Jeffers said he especially likes stackable bins from RH Baby & Child and Crate & Kids.Regan Baker, an interior designer in San Francisco, encourages her clients to reserve an extra bin or two for toys and clothing that children have outgrown, so they can be collected for donation to free up space elsewhere. “It’s just a spot so everyone knows where to put the donations,” she said.If the bins will be concealed in a closet or storage unit, Britt Zunino, a principal at Studio DB, recommended using clear containers, so children can easily see what’s inside. “You can see that it’s the Lego bin, the block bin or the plastic horses bin,” she said.If your bins are opaque, Ms. Zunino suggested taking pictures of the contents of each one and taping them to the outside, an idea she borrowed from her children’s preschool.Another advantage of bins is that they can easily be carried from room to room. “In our house, right now, we’ve been using oversized clear shoe bins for the kids’ schoolwork,” she said. “It fits a laptop, all their school paperwork and a cup of crayons and pencils, so the kids can carry it around.”ImageA living room by Studio DB hides toys in a window seat, a coffee table with swiveling top and a long cabinet (which also holds a bar for the grown-ups).Credit…Matthew WilliamsUse the WallAn empty wall is another opportunity to add storage space, including shelves where a collection of books or toys can double as decoration.Ms. Mettis often installs shallow wall shelves to hold favorite toys and books with their covers facing out. “A lot of kids’ things are really fun and made for display,” she said. In one project, she also used shallow wall-mounted baskets to hold art supplies above a craft table.In an arts-and-crafts room for a client, Ms. Baker installed an Ikea pegboard storage system to hold beads, ribbons, paintbrushes, glue and pompoms in separate containers across one wall, and horizontal wires with clips on another wall, so the children could display their artwork.ImageBaskets help container clutter in a room designed by Studio Life/Style.Credit…Sam FrostMake it EasyStorage containers and shelves should be within easy reach of the children who will use them. If your children are very young, shelves close to the floor will be far more useful than those mounted high on the wall.When you’re fitting out closets, Ms. Baker said, make sure to install adjustable shelves and rods for the same reason. As children grow, they can expand their usable storage space by moving the fixtures higher.And as their interests change, don’t forget to empty out old bins to make room for new possessions.In the end, the goal isn’t pick up your children’s clutter every day, Ms. Baker said — it’s to encourage children to do it on their own.“My kids are proof that it can happen,” she said. “It is possible.”For weekly email updates on residential real estate news, sign up here. Follow us on Twitter: @nytrealestate.

Real Estate
Can My Dog Poop on Someone’s Lawn if There’s No Sidewalk?

Q: When I take my dog for a walk in my suburban New Jersey neighborhood, I try to encourage him to do his business on the berm between the sidewalk and the curb. But on some blocks, lawns run right up to the curb, leaving no sidewalk. A homeowner recently yelled at me for letting my dog go on her lawn, even though I had picked it up. She has since posted a sign telling dogs to stay off her grass. I was taken aback. I’m a courteous dog owner, but what else am I supposed to do? My dog needs to go.A: Your neighbor’s lawn is not your dog’s bathroom, regardless of the design. The nitrogen content in the urine could damage her grass or plants. If she has children, she may not want them playing on a soiled lawn, especially because your dog’s waste could potentially carry harmful diseases. And if she has a dog of her own, another canine marking his territory might stress her pet.For all these reasons, train your dog to defecate closer to home. “Why would you walk your dog to my property when you have a yard?” said Jean Owen, the owner of NJ Fix My Dog in Morristown. “Frankly, it’s gross.”[embedded content]Ms. Owen suggests that you instead designate a place on your property where your dog can relieve himself. To train him, stand near the spot until he goes and reward him with a treat, and then a walk. “It is very easy to teach,” said Andrea Arden, a Manhattan dog trainer, “especially with puppies. On the second or third trip, they’re going to go to the bathroom where you teach them.”This will benefit everyone involved. If you walk your dog with the goal that he might eventually pee or poop along the way, expect distractions to drag out the process. “When it’s pouring rain, you are going to have to walk half a mile” before the dog relieves himself, Ms. Owen said.Consider the sign and the earlier conversation with you as polite ways to make a point. (You’re probably not the only offender.) Other frustrated homeowners have resorted to sprinkling the ground with cayenne pepper or ginger, which can cause nasal irritation, or set sprinklers to motion detectors to spray pets on their property. By contrast, your neighbor chose a clear, direct and safe tactic to get your attention. In return, heed her request, and stay off her grass.For weekly email updates on residential real estate news, sign up here. Follow us on Twitter: @nytrealestate.

Real Estate
Mold Can Make Your Family Sick. Here’s How to Get Rid of It.

When Mike moved from Vancouver to Silicon Valley in late 2018, he couldn’t believe his luck. He found a beautiful Art Deco cottage less than 30 minutes from work, with redwood forests and wineries on its doorstep and rent that was inexplicably within his price range. It was the dream home he and his wife, Jackie, had been searching for — perfect for the family they were about to start.If you feel like you’re watching the opening of a horror movie, you’re not wrong.First, the heating got weird. “We’d turn it on and the whole house would suddenly fill up with this strange, humid, almost tropical warm air,” said Mike, who asked that his last name be withheld to avoid retribution from his landlord. “Water would condense on the windows and just pour down the panes.”No amount of cleaning kept little blooms of mold from flowering on the walls and window frames. When Mike went down to the basement (disregarding decades of horror canon) he found that his heater was a 1940s-era contraption with rusted ducts, drawing air from earthen trenches flooded with stagnant water. They turned it off.The problems stopped, and soon their son was born. Mike’s landlord replaced the heating system and sealed up the old ducts and vents. But when the rains came back in November, the baby became sickly and wheezy. “He always had a snotty nose and this constant chest gurgle,” Mike recalls. Their pediatrician dismissed concerns about mold, instead blaming day care. The respiratory problems grew worse and soon he needed an inhaler.It was when he developed pneumonia that Mike’s unease turned to dread. Was his dream house making his child sick?It’s coming up on mold season in many parts of the U.S., and with the ongoing pandemic and looming possibility of new outbreaks and quarantines you may feel a nagging worry about what could be hiding in your home. Terrifying tales of mold invasion abound on the internet — ones that spark many questions. How dangerous is it? Are some types worse than others? What can you do if your house has mold, and at what point should you just walk away?It’s hard to sort fact from fiction, especially when some of the misinformation is coming from the very people paid to exorcise mold demons for you. Luckily, there are things we can do for peace of mind while — like in any good horror flick — we’re all trapped in our own homes.First the good news: We are all constantly breathing in a “thick soup” of fungi, bacteria and other microbes, plus their byproducts, said Naresh Magan, D.Sc., a mycologist at Cranfield University in England. No, really, this is good news. It means our immune systems have adapted over 500 million years to cope with fungus.For some, though, trouble at home starts in mold season, when warm, damp weather triggers mold to release its spores. Any kind of mold spore can colonize your living space, but there’s a quartet of usual suspects: Penicillium, Cladosporium, Alternaria, and Aspergillus. Stachybotrys, the toxic so-called “black mold,” is very unlikely to colonize your home.Demystifying moldMold spores stick to surfaces and, if conditions are sufficiently warm, moist and undisturbed, extrude tendrils which turn almost any surface into food — these form the fuzzy structures creeping out of the corner of the shower. Ceiling tiles, wood, paint, rubber, carpet, soil, dust; it’s all food to the mold, just add water.How do you know when mold has arrived? That’s easy: you’ll smell the — how to put this? — the airborne end products of its digestive processes. That’s right, mold farts. “Every time you smell that musty odor, that mold smell, that’s what you’re breathing in,” said David Denning, principal investigator at the Manchester Fungal Infection Group and a professor at the University of Manchester, in England.What effect does all this fungal activity have on health? Broadly speaking, we know there are two main ways mold can engage the immune system, and they depend on whether your system is underpowered or overactive.If you’re going through chemotherapy or have had a recent organ transplant, your evolved immune system firepower may have been depleted. The fungus can colonize the lungs and begin treating you as it would ceiling tiles or wood paneling, said Matthew Fisher, an epidemiologist at Imperial College London. But this is more often a problem in hospitals, home infections are exceedingly rare.You’re much more likely to have an overactive immune system that freaks out when confronted with the irritating proteins present in spores and mold filaments. Filaments land on the mucous membranes of our eyes, nose and mouth, causing eye-watering, itching, sneezing, coughing or asthma attacks.For most, these stop when you leave the moldy room. But experts estimate that between 5 and 10 percent of the population are more sensitive than others. “In an environment that’s colonized by fungus, you’re also going to be inhaling those spores every day and you may potentially become sensitized to them,” said Elaine Bignell, Ph.D., who co-directs the Manchester Fungal Infection Group. Sensitization means your body recognizes a substance and mounts an aggressive response to even the faintest traces of it. If you already have asthma, you might get a particularly severe “fungal asthma.”More worryingly, a decade of studies show a firm link between mold exposure in infants and the development of asthma symptoms by age 3. The only thing more correlated with asthma onset is maternal smoking.That’s the settled science. Beyond that, things quickly get confusing, scary and unsupported. Various exploitative websites, remediators and clinics cite a handful of papers claiming links between mold and neurological damage and developmental delays in kids. Neither Magan nor Denning buy it. “There is not enough of a body of evidence to support this,” said Denning. “This needs more in-depth investigations to prove cause and effect.”That is always the tricky bit. As with conditions like Wi-Fi sensitivity, symptoms of mold sensitization are all over the map, and tangled up with other potential allergies, like dust mites or cat dander. In particular, it’s impossible to disambiguate whether someone is sensitive to fungal fragments, the spores themselves, or the volatile organic compounds in the mold farts.Some people claim that they are sensitive to chemicals in these V.O.C.s, but when they were tested in placebo-controlled trials the results were mixed. When some participants were told that mold had been released (but hadn’t) they would often manifest symptoms like debilitating headaches. When mold spores were actually released without telling them, they remained unaffected.Denning has a lot of sympathy for people who live with these problems. “It’s no doubt that these people are suffering,” he said. “But as with a lot of things, the science isn’t there yet to say it’s actually mold that’s the culprit.”The path of resistanceInitially, Mike’s landlord tried to fix the problem himself, bleaching the moldy walls. “We call that ‘spray ‘n’ pray’,” said Scott Armour of the Institute of Inspection Cleaning and Restoration Certification, a global industry body for remediators. They, along with the EPA, advise against bleach for a variety of reasons, namely that fumes can be dangerous and it’s usually ineffective.Bleach only works for non-porous surfaces. It can’t touch the mold that has burrowed into surfaces like wood or drywall (supposedly, vinegar may help you there). But the most important reason bleach fails is that people don’t stop the mold’s water supply.“First thing I do is check for leaks, in the bathroom or roof or a crack in the foundation,” said Greg Bukowski, who runs the Chicago-based remediation company Moldman USA. “There’s always a leak.” If you don’t fix that, don’t bother with bleach or vinegar. Then kill and remove the mold with detergent and water, then prevent its return with mold-resistant paint like Kilz (which, confusingly, does not kill existing mold).When bleach didn’t work, Mike paid for an indoor airborne mold test, which raised more questions than it answered. “We had no idea how to interpret the results. I just couldn’t find any information out there that isn’t written by remediation guys,” he said. They told him he had the dreaded black mold, and needed professional remediation. (Even if your mold is that color, it’s usually not the infamous toxic black mold. Unless the remediator has sequenced your mold’s genome, don’t take their word for it.)Whatever kind of mold you have, if there’s more than 10 square feet of it, the EPA advises against DIY remediation. But where do you find a specialist for larger areas? Denning said while the industry is not quite snake oil, it is certainly not based on settled science, and it is being sold by an under-regulated industry.Reputable remediators wantedBukowski is the first to agree. “We don’t have the greatest reputation as an industry,” he said. “There’s a lot of scare tactics, and they leverage that to charge really high prices.”For instance, the mold test Mike paid for was likely not useful. “There are so many reasons not to do a home test of any kind,” said Armour. “No home test is reliable. None are valid.” Still, after the mold test results, Mike and his family moved into an AirBnB for two weeks. They were worried about the baby developing asthma — whether from the mold or from the “mold fog” Mike’s landlord hired remediators to set loose. Mold fog is similar to roach bombs and their efficacy is just as contested.Not everyone in the industry is trying to upsell people’s misfortune. I.I.C.R.C. is a good place to find reputable mold remediators, and is working to establish standards, guidelines and training around how to deal with the problem.Regardless of who performs the exorcism — you or a reputable specialist — after it’s complete, your work is not done. Some firms offer long warranties, but you need to do your part. Some people will have a harder time than others. If the ambient humidity in your area is above 80 percent, congratulations, it’s always mold season.Your situation is probably worse if your home is made of wood. (Brick houses anecdotally offer less nourishment for mold, but no official studies confirm this “Three Little Pigs” system.) In mild weather, get a dehumidifier to keep your home under 65 percent humidity, which prevents most molds from gaining a foothold. As the temperature outside drops, however, a complicated relationship emerges between temperature and indoor humidity, often causing the mold-bearing condensation Mike saw in his home.The rule of thumb is to drop the humidity by 5 percent for each 10 degree drop outside, and regularly drain the water from the dehumidifier and clean it. Track any leaks and cracks in your home and always change your air conditioning filters on schedule.And if you do have a mold allergy? Pay attention to the age of your bedding. I regret to inform you that the mites who live in your pillow poop there, which makes a tasty snack for mold. Your head sweats on the poop and the mold while you sleep, and then it grows.Mike didn’t have to worry about the dehumidifier — this past February was the driest in California on record. Eventually, antibiotics and an inhaler cleared up the baby’s pneumonia. Nonetheless, just before the Covid-19 lockdown, he and Jackie decided to abandon their dream home. Apart from tearing the whole house apart, there was no way to know if hidden pockets of mold lurked behind the walls, and their landlord was tired of doing tests.“We just didn’t want to wait and see what the house would do to our son next year,” he said. Their new place is smaller, more expensive and free of unwanted guests. For now.

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