As the Covid-19 pandemic eases and national economies emerge from suspended animation, demand for energy, labour and transport has surged. That sudden acceleration is putting a huge strain on the just-in-time, cross-border supply chains that keep factories open and shelves stocked. From Liverpool to Los Angeles, Beijing to Berlin, the world is in the grip of a supply crunch. Here, Guardian correspondents report on how the fallout is affecting six big economies.

United States

Off the coast of Los Angeles a record-breaking flotilla of container ships is waiting to unload goods. With the holiday season approaching, companies across the US predicting shortages and price rises for everything from artificial Christmas trees and sports goods to Thanksgiving turkeys. Retailers warn that basics including toilet paper could once again be in short supply.

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