FRANKFURT — Cars with internal combustion engines will disappear from European showrooms by 2035. Steel producers and cement makers will pay for every ton of carbon dioxide their factories emit. Cargo ships may not be able to dock in ports like Rotterdam or Hamburg unless they run on cleaner fuels. Commercial airliners will be required to fill up with synthetic fuel produced with green energy.

The European Union’s plan to cut its greenhouse gas emissions by more than half by the end of the decade will touch almost every industry in the trade bloc, with profound consequences for jobs and the bloc’s economy. European leaders said the climate package presented on Wednesday could put Europe at the forefront of new technologies like electric car batteries, offshore wind generation or aircraft engines that run on hydrogen.

But the transition will also be painful for some consumers and companies, raising the cost of a wide variety of…

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