Nearly 500 years before Christopher Columbus set sail for the Americas, much of the world was already connected via trade, exploration, and cultural exchange. In fact, one can trace globalization all the way back to the 11th century, according to Yale’s Valerie Hansen, the Stanley Woodward Professor of History in the Faculty of Arts & Sciences. 

In her recent book, “The Year 1000: When Explorers Connected the World — and Globalization Began” (Scribner), Hansen rejects the popular view that globalization started around the time of Columbus’ voyage, and instead demonstrates that earlier travelers had already established a network of trade routes that connected Asia, Europe, Africa, and what is now the Middle East. When the Vikings sailed to Canada, also in the year 1000, North America also became part of this “worldwide network of pathways,” she said.

As peoples living in different regions established contact…

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